British WWII fighter found in Egyptian desert

In what experts consider nothing short of a miracle, a Polish oil company worker recently discovered the plane believed to have been flown by missing Flight Sgt. Dennis Copping.

(CNN) — As German Gen. Erwin Rommel chased British forces across the North African desert, a stray Royal Air Force fighter crashed in the blistering sands of the Egyptian Sahara on June 28, 1942. The pilot was never heard from again. The damaged Kittyhawk P-40 — a couple of hundred miles from civilization — was presumed lost forever.

s German Gen. Erwin Rommel chased British forces across the North African desert, a stray Royal Air Force fighter crashed in the blistering sands of the Egyptian Sahara on June 28, 1942.

Until now.
In what experts consider nothing short of a miracle, a Polish oil company worker recently discovered the plane believed to have been flown by missing Flight Sgt. Dennis Copping. And almost 70 years after the accident, it’s extraordinarily well-preserved.

The pilot was never heard from again. The damaged Kittyhawk P-40 — a couple of hundred miles from civilization — was presumed lost forever.

The fighter’s “state of preservation is incredible,” British military historian Andy Saunders told CNN. “The thing just landed there in the desert and the pilot clearly got out. … It is a complete time capsule really (and) an exceptionally rare find. These things just don’t happen.”
Most of the plane’s fuselage, wings, tail and cockpit instruments remain intact. For safety reasons, Egyptian officials have removed its ammunition and guns.

The fighter’s “state of preservation is incredible,” British military historian Andy Saunders said. “The thing just landed there in the desert and the pilot clearly got out. … It is a complete time capsule really.”

Copping’s plane — authorities have not confirmed his identity, though it has been widely reported in British newspapers — crashed after the 24-year-old pilot got lost while trying to fly it from one RAF base to another for repairs to its front landing gear, which wouldn’t retract.
WWII plane wreckage found 70 years later
Copping, part of the RAF’s Egyptian 260 Squadron, was trying to get the American-built plane back in fighting condition in the run-up to what would prove to be the pivotal Battle of El Alamein.

Pilots were “flying with very basic life support systems,” Saunders said. “His chances of survival were not good.”

The young pilot, according to Saunders, apparently became disoriented during the flight and headed in the wrong direction. Another RAF pilot flying nearby “tried all sorts of things” to get his attention, but Copping “bizarrely” ignored a series of warnings, Saunders said.
By the time Copping realized his mistake, he was too low on fuel to turn around. Several pieces of evidence at the crash site — including a parachute believed to have been used as shelter from the sun — indicate the strong probability Copping survived the landing. He almost certainly could not, however, survive the blazing Sahara heat for long.

Almost 70 years after the accident, the plane is extraordinarily well-preserved.

Copping “would have stayed by the aircraft initially,” Saunders noted. While the plane’s glass valve radio was likely knocked out of commission by the crash, “the parachute gives him shelter and a means to be identified from the air. The guy also would have had a little silver signaling mirror to attract passing aircraft and a pistol with a limited number of flares.”
Why would Copping leave the wreckage? “Maybe he got desperate when he saw nobody was coming for him, and thought (the) only way to survive was to walk out” and look for help, Saunders speculated.

RAF pilots in North Africa at that time didn’t have much in terms of rations. Copping’s supply would have been very limited, assuming he had food or water at all.

RAF pilots in North Africa at that time didn’t have much in terms of rations. Copping’s supply would have been very limited, assuming he had food or water at all.
Pilots were “flying with very basic life support systems,” Saunders said. “His chances of survival were not good.”

For safety reasons, Egyptian officials have removed its ammunition and guns.

As Copping’s story becomes known, British authorities are hoping to bring his plane back to the United Kingdom and put it on display at the RAF Museum in London. Museum representatives are working with the British Embassy in Cairo and Britain’s Ministry of Defence on a possible recovery operation.

Most of the plane’s fuselage, wings, tail and cockpit instruments remain intact.

“It’s an incredible story,” said museum spokesman Michael Creane. “It’s a perfect story in so many ways. It’s incredible the plane sat there in this untouched part of the world for so long. … We’re dedicated to recovering it as fast as we can. This would be a fantastic asset.”

As Copping’s story becomes known, British authorities are hoping to bring his plane back to the United Kingdom and put it on display at the RAF Museum in London.

By Alan Silverleib,

Posted in History, Liberal News and Politics | Leave a comment

Liberating Egypt from Female Genital Mutilation

“That woman in Cairo,” I wonder as I stare at the dramatic photo in Washington Post, “the one with the Egyptian flag and the black headscarf… does she have a clitoris?” The answer 90% out of 100 is No
Perhaps my question is intrusive and impolite. Perhaps discussing clitorises is a more taboo topic than if I, for example, announced that I don’t have a foreskin, or that I do have a hemorrhoid.
However A Salafi Ultra religious Politician in Parliament introduced a Bill He want to Legalize female Circumcision and have it performed at government expense at Hospitals and not but Midwives or the local barber. Thus reversing a law that was passed during the Mubarak era making it a criminal offense to circumcise girls.

I don’t know. What I do believe (mutating stanzas from 1963’s Marat/Sade by Peter Weiss) is this:

What’s the point of the Egyptian Revolution
If it doesn’t stop female genital mutilation?
If girls are chopped bloody, sexually-deducted,
Was the 18-day struggle at all productive?
Egypt gave itself a Mubarak-tomy
Now its time to end clitoridectomy
Let us condemn
F-G-M and the so called Politicians for Allah and the Mutilation of women Genitals

Is female genital mutilation (FGM) a transhumanist issue? Yes. “Enhancement” is championed by technoprogressives as a basic human right; this suggests that the opposite “reductions” like FGM deserve condemnation as a violation of the same entitlement. The H+ desire to be “more than human” should be linked to a protest against non-consensual amputation. The Transhumanist Declaration also strives for the “alleviation of grave suffering.”

Do I believe male circumcision of infants is also a non-consensual “reduction” that transhumanists should oppose? Yes, I do. In San Francisco, where I live, there’s a proposal circulating that would ban the unnecessary, sensory-reducing procedure. The measure intends to make it “unlawful to circumcise, excise, cut or mutilate the whole or any part of the foreskin, testicles, or penis of another person who has not attained the age of 18 years.” The law, if passed, would punish the new crime with up to one year in jail and a $1,000 fine, and it’s getting my vote.

However, female genital mutilation is not circumcision—it’s a far more dangerous and debilitating attack on the flesh. Abolishing FGM unfortunately was not an agenda item that any Egyptian revolutionary spokesperson mentioned, and it was generally ignored as a subject of discussion by international media until CBS reporter Lara Logan was assaulted in Tahrir Square on February 11 by a mob of up to 200 men.

The Sunday Times reported that “sensitive parts of her body were covered with red marks… from aggressive pinching.” She was also “stripped, punched and slapped.” Suddenly, misogynist horror in the land of the Pharaohs was in the spotlight, and why not? The attack on Logan, who was rescued by Egyptian women and policemen after 20 to 30 minutes of abuse, serves as a potent reminder that even with Mubarak gone, it’s often a nasty men’s world in the Nile nation.

“Rampant sexual harassment, public fondling and groping of women… is used as a way to keep women indoors,” writes Asra Nomani in the Huffington Post. A 2008 survey by the Egyptian Centre for Women’s Rights says 83% of Egyptian women and 98% of foreign visiting females experience sexual harassment, and the Arab Human Development Report (2009) claims 35% of all Egyptian women have been physically attacked, a figure they suggest is grossly under-reported. The 2010 Global Gender Gap Index, a Swiss study that rates progress towards women’s equality, places Egypt in the international cellar: #125 out of 134 nations surveyed. Egypt’s rank is abysmal because it excludes women from good jobs, especially managerial positions, and only 2% of parliament is female.

Abuse of Egyptian females often occurs early in life, with female genital mutilation. Although it was banned in 2007 by the Ministry of Health following the death of 12-year-old Badour Shaker—who overdosed on anesthesia in an illegal clinic—its prevalence has only dropped from 97% to 91% in recent years, according to Nfissatou Diop, program coordinator of a joint project by UNICEF and UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund).

The Grand Mufti of Egypt has said FGM is “prohibited,” the Al-Aabar Supreme Council of Islamic Research says it shouldn’t be practiced because it has no basis in Islamic law, and even the former first lady—Suzanne Mubarak—denounced it as “a flagrant example of continued physical and psychological violence.”

So…why does this barbarity persist?

UNICEF claims that FGM’s primary raison d’etre is to “reduce the sexual desire of a female…[to] maintain a girl’s virginity prior to marriage and her fidelity thereafter.” Traditions insist that FGM makes girls “clean,” “beautiful,” and “pure,” because it removes the “ugly” and “dirty” genitalia. Superstitious propaganda also contends that men become impotent or sick if their penis contacts a clitoris, that a mother’s milk will be poisonous if she’s uncut, that her face will turn yellow and she’ll get vaginal cancer without FGM, and (perhaps most frighteningly) she’ll masturbate excessively or become a lesbian.

My sociological opinion is that FGM’s intent is to terrorize young females into lifelong submission to male authority.

Archeologists believe FGM’s origins probably lie in the pyramids’ shadows. Unraveled mummies were found with FGM, and a Greek papyrus from 163 B.C. notes that Egyptian girls were given the operation when they received their dowries.

Today, an estimated two million girls per year are excised. Here’s a list of high percentage nations, tabulated by Rosemarie Skaine in her book, Female Genital Mutilation: Legal, Cultural, and Medical Issues—Burkina Faso (71.6%), Chad (60%), Cote d’Ivoire (44.5%), Djibouti (90-98%), Eritrea (90%), Ethiopia (69.7-94.5%), Gambia (80-90%), Ghana (40%), Guinea (98.6%), Liberia (60%), Mali (92%), Mauritania (71%), Sierra Leone (90%), Somalia (95%), Sudan (91%), Togo (50%), Iraqi Kurdistan (72.7%), and Egypt (78-97%).

Egyptian feminist Nawal El Saadawi—who had her clitoris excised when she was six—became a doctor who regularly observed the “terrible physical damage female genital mutilation could cause.” In 1972, when she was director general in the Egyptian Ministry of Health, she wrote a book, Women and Sex, that criticized FGM. She subsequently lost her job.

Ayaan Hirsi Ali, the Somali/Dutch/American writer, is probably the most famous chronicler of her own genital mutilation experience. In her biography, Infidel, she describes her cutting, followed by infibulation:

Women held my legs apart. The man… picked up a pair of scissors… The scissors went down between my legs and the man snipped off my inner labia and clitoris, like a butcher snipping the fat off a piece of meat. A piercing pain shot up between my legs, indescribable, and I howled. Then came the sewing: the long, blunt needle clumsily pushing into my outer labia, my long and anguished protests…”

Many girls die during or after their excision, from infections. Other complications cause enormous, more or less lifelong pain… My once cheerful, playful little sister [Hawaya] changed… never the same afterwards. She became ill with a fever for several weeks… horrible nightmares… she just stared vacantly at nothing for hours…

Later, her sister dies young, after years of psychosis.

Hearing this stuff drives me, personally, crazy with rage and bewilderment. How can anyone who claims to love their children simultaneously subject their innocents to such ghastly abuse? To care for one’s children is to keep them from harm, not dissect their young bodies with filthy tools.

The civilized outcry against FGM is not 100% universal, due to “cultural relativism” infecting some circles of feminism. The Village Voice reports that in 2006, Patricia Clough, director of the Center for the Study of Women at CUNY, “declined to call female genital mutilation wrong.” Rogaia Mustafa Abusharaf of Brown University has also defined FGM as “a site of identity formation.”

But generally, condemnation of FGM in the Western world is substantial, led by many European women’s groups, such as GAMS FRANCE, GAMS BELGIUM, END FGM, FGM- HILFE (Austria), Female Integrity (Sweden), FSAN (The Netherlands), FORWARD (UK), and others.

If FGM persists in Egypt after democracy (we hope) is installed, it will be an embarrassment in the pages of their progress. Ignoring FGM at this time would resemble the shame American people of conscience feel when they regard the year 1870, when black men were given the vote via the 15th Amendment, but women of all colors were denied—for another 50 years (the 19th Amendment).

Egyptian feminist Nawla Darwiche has stated that “all the men were very respectful during the revolution… sexual harassment didn’t occur during the revolt.” Let’s hope, and insist, that this cessation of abuse becomes a permanent feature in the new, ancient nation. The words “Egyptian Revolution” have a glorious sound, but not if we simultaneously hear the screams of girls.

Posted in Beautiful Women, Couples, Lesbians, Liberal News and Politics, Middle-Eastern beautiful people, Sex, كتابات ليبرالية واخبار, مزز | Leave a comment

تسعة أسئلة وحقائق عن همجية الختان Female circumcision

د. خالد منتصر

الختان لا يحرم البنت من الإثارة كما ندعى.. لكن يدمر إشباعها حتى لا تصل للنشوة التى نعتبرها عيباً

مصر أولى دول العالم فى نسبة ختان الإناث فى العالم.. «91%» من بناتها مختتنات

«أميرة» توفيت أثناء ختانها فى عيادة طبيب.. و«أمنية» ماتت بهبوط حاد بالدورة الدموية

فى 1979 بدأت جهود مكافحة الختان فى مصر.. وفى 1990 انضمت إلى الاتفاقية العالمية لحقوق الطفل

بعد انفراد «الوطن» بنشر خبر عن مساعى حزب النور السلفى لإلغاء قانون «تجريم ختان الإناث»، ثارت ضجة كبيرة فى الأوساط المجتمعية والدينية والحقوقية والسياسية ضد ذلك الاتجاه الذى وصفه رجال دين وحقوقيون بأنه «عودة لعصور الجاهلية».

ورغم أننا فى سنة 2012 ما زال فى مصر من يعيش بعقلية العصور الوسطى، من لا يزال مصراً على تقنين وتشريع أكبر جريمة بربرية وهمجية عرفتها مصر، وهى جريمة ختان البنات، من يصر على تقديم مشروع قانون يطبب الختان ويسمح بإجرائه فى المستشفيات! ختان البنات جريمة سواء بيد الداية أو الطبيب، ختان البنات ليست له أى ضرورة طبية مذكورة فى أى مرجع طبى، بل أكثر من ذلك؛ ختان البنات غير مذكور أصلاً كإجراء طبى معترف به فى أى كتاب يُرجع إليه كمصدر علمى محترم، تطبيب الختان جريمة، ولا يوجد ما يسمى «ختان شرعى» و«ختان غير شرعى»، يوجد فقط ختان بنات يُطلق عليه فى البلاد المتحضرة البتر التناسلى للإناث، ختان البنات عادة لا عبادة، وجزارة لا طهارة.

• ما هو الختان؟ وما هو البظر المتسبب فى كل هذه الضجة؟

الختان، أو بالأصح لغوياً الخفض، هو عملية يُزال فيها البظر، وهى عدة أنواع تتدرج من الختان البسيط الذى يتم فيه إزالة جزء بسيط من مقدمة البظر إلى الختان السودانى أو الفرعونى الذى يتم فيه استئصال البظر بكامله والشفرتين الصغيرتين والكبيرتين أيضاً، ثم يجرى تخييط النسيج المتبقى أو ضم ساقى الفتاة إلى بعضهما وربطهما جيداً بهدف التحام هذه الأنسجة حتى لا تبقى إلا فتحة صغيرة فى مدخل الفرج.. أما ذلك البظر المتهم فهو جزء لم تُعرف له وظيفة فى الجهاز التناسلى إلا الإشباع الجنسى، وهو يقع فى أعلى التقاء الشفرين الصغيرين، وهو يناظر العضو الذكرى تشريحياً ولكنه لا يحتوى على أى فتحات، ويحدث له أيضاً ما نستطيع أن نطلق عليه الانتصاب حيث ينتفخ ويمتلئ بالدماء إذا حدثت الاستثارة، ولكى تتخيل حجم الجريمة باختصار؛ إزالة البظر يماثله فى الرجل إزالة العضو الذكرى كاملاً، ولكى نفهم وظيفة البظر علينا أولاً أن نفهم الفرق بين الإثارة الجنسية والإشباع الجنسى.

«البظر المتهم ».. جزء لم تُعرف له وظيفة فى الجهاز التناسلى إلا الإشباع الجنسى

• الفرق بين الإثارة الجنسية والإشباع الجنسى:

البظر ليس دوره خلق وصياغة وتشكيل الإثارة إنما هذا هو دور المخ، ولكن دوره هو فى الإشباع الجنسى، ولذلك فنحن حينما نجرى عملية الختان لا نحرم الأنثى من الإثارة كما ندعى ونتعلل بسبب جوِّنا الحار، ولكننا ندمر إشباعها الجنسى حتى لا تصل إلى النشوة التى هى من وجهة نظرنا عيب ومن حقنا فقط نحن الرجال، و«علشان نريح أصحاب نظرية قطع البظر تحقيقاً لبعد النظر»، وبُعد النظر هنا بالطبع هو الحفاظ على الشرف الذى يراق على جوانبه الدم، نقدم لهم تلك الإحصائية التى ستهدم نظريتهم وهى أن 90% من المتهمات فى قضايا الدعارة قد أجريت لهن عمليات ختان!! وهذا يعنى ببساطة أن ما سينقذ بناتنا من الوقوع فى هوة الدعارة ليس هو قطع هذه الجلدة وإنما هو التربية السليمة.

• حجم مشكلة الختان فى مصر:

مصر أولى دول العالم فى نسبة ختان الإناث فى العالم، وحسب ما جاء فى تقرير الصحة العالمية فإن 91% من بنات مصر مختتنات، أما فى الدراسة الميدانية التى أجراها الأستاذ الدكتور محمد كريم، أستاذ النساء بجامعة عين شمس فى أغسطس سنة 1994 على 800 طفلة من سن 6 إلى 14 سنة والتى روعى فيها تفاوت المستوى التعليمى والاجتماعى للعينات وأن يكون بينهن 10% من الأقباط، أثبتت الدراسة أن نسبة 19% فقط لم يُختن مقابل 81% مختونات، وتزيد النسبة إلى 88% فى الأسر الفقيرة. وقد كشفت الدراسة عن نوعية الشخص القائم بعملية الختان، وأثبتت أن نسبة 48% من عمليات الختان تجرى بواسطة الداية مقابل 46% بواسطة الأطباء و6% بواسطة حلاقى الصحة، أما المفاجأة فهى فى أرقام البحث الميدانى الثانى الذى أجراه الأستاذ نفسه ولكن هذه المرة فى نادى القاهرة أى فى أوساط المجتمع الراقى وقد أجرى هذا البحث سنة 1994 على عينة من 200 سيدة فتبين منه أن 98% منهن مختتنات!!

• كيف قرأ الأدب وعلم الاجتماع ظاهرة ختان البنات؟

تناولت الختان قصص وروايات كثيرة مثل «زينب والعرش» لفتحى غانم و«أصوات» لسليمان فياض، التى تحكى تجربة مدهشة لختان سيدة فرنسية تزوجت من شاب مصرى ورماها حظها النحس وورطها فى زيارة قريته لتتم لها هناك هذه العملية البشعة، ولكن حتى لا يقال «ده كلام روايات أو وصف جورنالجية» سنقتبس الوصف من إحدى الدراسات الاجتماعية للدكتور محمد عوض خميس الذى حضر إحدى عمليات الختان ووصفها قائلاً:

«يجتمع حشد من النساء وتعم الجميع فرحة غامرة ويتهامسن فيما بينهن بجمل غاية فى القباحة مثل «خليها تبرد نارها».. «خليها تبقى عازبة مش مالحة».. أو «شوية ويتهد حيلها ما الحال من بعضه».. «ده يكسر مناخيرها».. «بكرة تتجوز ومهما يعمل فيها لا تتعب ولا تحس».. ويعقب كل جملة من هذه الجمل ضحكات هستيرية دلالة على الترحيب ونوع من أنواع الشماتة. وتدخل الداية، وهى سيدة كبيرة فى السن قوية الجسد، معها منديل معقود به مشرط طويل عرضه حوالى 2?5 بوصة يشبه سكين الجزار، ويتطوع خمس من النسوة ذوات الصحة والعافية من المدعوات إلى الدخول مع الداية ويبدأن على الفور فى رفع ملابس الفتاة حتى الجزء الأعلى من الجسم ثم يوزعن أنفسهن كالآتى.. إحداهن تقف عند كتفيها ضاغطة عليها بكل قوة واثنتان تمسكان بالفخذ الأيمن وتفتحان الفخذين إلى آخر حد ممكن حتى يبدو العضو التناسلى للفتاة وهى فى حالة صراخ هستيرى بشع، ثم تقوم الداية بمنتهى السرعة بضرب مشرطها قاطعة البظر. وأثناء العملية تكون النسوة يمضغن اللبان الدكر ويشربن القهوة ويطلقن البخور، ثم تقوم إحدى السيدات بخلط اللبان الدكر وتنوة القهوة والبخور المحترق معاً وتقدمها للداية التى تضع الخليط السابق على الجرح وتضغط

ف عند هذا الحد من السيناريو الدراكولى البشع الذى نحتفل فيه بذبح فتاة فى عمر الزهور وذلك للأسف بأيدى ضحايا مررن بتلك التجربة وذقن مرارتها وعانين من بشاعتها، كل ذلك من أجل الشرف الذى نقصره عند المرأة على الجنس، وسيردّ علينا أحد المحتسبين الجدد فيقول بأن الوصف السابق هو مع الداية فقط، ولكنى أرد وأقول بأن حالات نزف كثيرة بل وحالات وفاة حدثت أيضاً مع أطباء، وسنضطر لذكر بعض هذه المآسى الإنسانية التى قُدمت كقرابين على مذابح الشرف بواسطة بعض الأطباء الكهنة، فمثلاً الفتاة «أميرة محمد صلاح البسيونى» من ناحية كفر الطويلة بمركز طلخا قد توفيت أثناء عملية ختانها فى عيادة أحد الأطباء بعد أن ظلت تنزف لمدة خمسة أيام، كما توفيت أيضاً الفتاة «أمنية عبدالحميد أبوالعلا»، 14 سنة، على إثر عملية ختان أجراها لها طبيب قرية كوم اثنين بمركز قليوب بعد هبوط حاد بالدورة الدموية، وغير هذه الحالات السابقة الكثيرات والكثيرات ممن لا يتسع المجال لحصرهن، مما يثبت أن مجرد كلمة طبيب لا تعنى المنقذ أو المخلص، فالداية أو الطبيب كلاهما يرتكب جريمة حين يجرى عملية الختان، ولكنها فى حالة الداية جريمة «بلدى»، أما فى حالة الطبيب فهى جريمة «شيك» بقفازات وبنج، فالقضية ليست فى أن تجريها داية أو يجريها طبيب، القضية هى إجراؤها من عدمه، القضية هى هل نستعد لدخول المستقبل بعقل متحضر أم نظل مجتمعاً يفكر بنصفه الأسفل فقط.

• الأضرار العضوية للختان:

فضلاً عن الآثار النفسية التى تتركها هذه العملية البشعة والوحشية على الفتاة طيلة عمرها، فإن الآثار العضوية لا تقل خطورة عنها، فبجانب النزيف الذى يحدث عند إجراء العملية فالآثار بعيدة المدى التى تحدث بعدها كثيرة ومتعددة وخطيرة، ومنها الاحتقان البولى والالتهابات والالتصاقات التى ينتج عنها أحياناً انسداد قنوات «فالوب» التى هى من أهم أسباب العقم بل ومن أصعبها علاجاً، بالإضافة إلى القروح المزمنة والتهابات المسالك البولية والكلى واحتقان الحوض المزمن التى ندفع إليها بناتنا بأيدينا وبرضانا وبمنتهى السادية وكأننا من آكلى لحوم البشر.

• قراءة دينية للختان:

ماذا عن الجانب الدينى الذى يتشدقون به ويزايدون عليه برغم معرفتهم وتأكدهم تمام التأكد من أنه لا يشاركنا فى هذه العادة المتخلفة إلا بلدان إسلاميان هما السودان والصومال، أما جميع البلاد الإسلامية الأخرى، وفى مقدمتها السعودية، فلا تجرى هذه العملية على الإطلاق. وقد أعلن فضيلة الشيخ عبدالغفار منصور، مستشار الفقه الإسلامى فى مكة المكرمة: «إننا لا نعرف عادة الختان فى مكة لا قبل ميلاد الرسول ولا بعد بعثه، وإن الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم لم يقم بإجراء الختان لبناته، وحتى يومنا هذا فإن عادة الختان غير معروفة فى مكة». وقد أعلن هذه الفتوى فى مؤتمر السكان، وفى عام 1994 أعلن شيخ الأزهر السابق ومفتى مصر حينذاك د.محمد سيد طنطاوى: «وأما الختان أو الخفاض بالنسبة للإناث فلم يرد بشأنه حديث يُحتج به وإنما وردت آثار حكم المحققون من العلماء عليها بالضعف، ومنها حديث «الختان سنة للرجال مكرمة للنساء»، وحديث «لا تنهكى فإن ذلك أحظى للمرأة وأحب إلى البعل». وقد ذكر هذه الأحاديث جميعها الإمام الشوكانى، وحكمها الضعف. وقال صاحب كتاب «عون المعبود شرح سنن أبى داود» بعد أن ذكر ما جاء فى الختان: «وحديث ختان المرأة رُوى من أوجه كثيرة وكلها ضعيفة معلومة مخدوشة لا يصح الاحتجاج بها كما عرفت»، وقد خلص د.طنطاوى فى نهاية فتواه إلى أنه لا يوجد نص شرعى صحيح يحتج به فى مسألة ختان البنات وأن الختان ما هو إلا عادة انتشرت فى مصر من جيل إلى آخر». وقد شارك المفتى السابق فى هذا الرأى جمهرة من علماء الدين المستنيرين الذين تكفلوا بالرد على رافعى راية «نموت نموت ويحيا الختان»، وقد كتب فضيلة الشيخ محمود محمد خضر، عالم الحديث بالأزهر الشريف، فى جريدة «الأهرام» حول حديث الختان سنة للرجال مكرمة للنساء وتحت عنوان «حول رؤية الفقهاء لموضوع الختان»: «إن هذا الحديث مكذوب وليس ضعيفاً فحسب لأنه من الواضح أن هذا الكلام من أساليب الفقهاء وليس من أساليب الرسول، صلى الله عليه وسلم، لأن استعمال كلمة السنة من عمل الفقهاء فى العصور المتأخرة».

أما بالنسبة للحديث الثانى وهو حديث أم عطية «أشمى ولا تنهكى فإنه أسرى للوجه وأحظى عند الزوج» فكل الرواة قد رووه بأسانيد ضعيفة كما كتب د.محمد سليم العوا الذى قال: «إن راوى الحديث نفسه يحكم بضعفه فكيف نلتفت إلى من صحّحه من المتأخرين». وإذا كان العوا قد استند فى تضعيفه للحديث على السند فسنحاول أن نناقش نحن المتن، وللتقريب للأذهان سنضرب مثلاً: إذا نصحت أنا كطبيب مريضاً بالربو يشرب ستين سيجارة يومياً فأمرته بأن يدخن خمس سجائر فقط فى اليوم هل أنا بذلك الأمر أكون مشجعاً للسجائر محبذاً لها وداعياً إلى تدخينها، أم أحاول أن أطلب الممكن من إنسان امتلكته العادة، وذلك حتى أمنعه نهائياً منها بالتدريج؟ كذلك أعتقد أن هذا كان قصد الرسول الكريم، بافتراض صحة سند الحديث، حين انتقل إلى مجتمع المدينة الذى كان يُجرى هذه العملية كعادة متأصلة، فحديثه إذن بذلك أقرب إلى المنع منه إلى الإباحة.

والغريب أن مثل هذه الفتاوى والآراء التى تؤيد منع الختان ليست جديدة، ولكنه عصر مناقشة البديهيات حيث العودة إلى الخلف هى الأصل والرجعية والجمود والتخلف هم أصحاب الصوت العالى، فمن يطلع على عدد مجلة «لواء الإسلام» يونيو 1951 يجد أن الشيخ البنا والشيخ محمود شلتوت ومحمد إبراهيم سالم رئيس المحكمة الشرعية العليا وعبدالوهاب خلاف وحسن مأمون وغيرهم يتفقون على ضعف هذه الأحاديث وأن الختان بدعة مكروهة، وهكذا اتفقوا قديماً وحديثاً ولكن المحتسبين الجدد من هواة الشهرة لا ينظرون إلى أبعد من أنوفهم.

• جهود منظمات المجتمع المدنى لمناهضة ختان الإناث:

على الجانب الآخر ما زال فى مصر المحروسة من لا يخافون فى الحق لومة لائم ويحاربون من أجل كرامة المرأة واحترام آدميتها. لم يقف المجلس القومى للأمومة والطفولة وحيداً فى هذه المعركة، ففى عام 1979 قادت جمعية تنظيم الأسرة فى القاهرة حملة قومية ضد ختان الإناث من خلال حلقة دراسية بعنوان «الانتهاك البدنى لصغار الإناث»، وقد أدى تطبيق توصيات هذه الحلقة إلى إقامة الجمعية المصرية للوقاية من الممارسات الضارة بصحة المرأة والطفل، وهو ما أدى فى النهاية إلى انضمام مصر لاتفاقية 1990 وهى الاتفاقية العالمية لحقوق الطفل التى أدانت ممارسة ختان الإناث على أنها تعذيب وانتهاك جنسى للطفل، وبعدها مؤتمر الصحة العالمى السادس والأربعون عام 1992 الذى أدان هذه العملية وجرّمها. وقبل انعقاد المؤتمر العالمى للسكان فى عام 1994 بالقاهرة تم تكوين مجموعة عمل مصرية متعددة الاتجاهات من المنظمات غير الحكومية والأطباء وعلماء الاجتماع وأساتذة الجامعات ورجال الإعلام.. إلخ، وهدفها القضاء النهائى على عادة الختان، وكانت منسقة العمل هى الدكتورة عزيزة حسين، ومنسقة مجموعة الدراسات والبحوث الدكتورة مواهب المويلحى.

• قراءة قانونية لختان البنات:

كما أثارت قضية الختان جدلاً علمياً وفقهياً انتهى إلى تجريمها، فإن القانون كذلك قد اهتم بها، ورغم عدم وجود نص خاص بها فى القانون فإن رجال القانون قد أكدوا أنها تشكل جريمة جرح عمدى مما يعاقب عليه قانون العقوبات، فالمستشار صلاح محمود عويس، نائب رئيس محكمة النقض، يرى فى الدراسة التى أعدها عن ختان الأنثى من زاوية المسئولية الجنائية والمدنية، أن هذه العملية تقوم على المساس بجسم الأنثى عن طريق الجرح ويترتب عليها حرمان الأنثى من جزء فطرى من جهازها التناسلى الذى خلقه الله لحكمة وغاية أحاط بها بعلمه، وبمقتضى هذا التكييف القانونى لذلك الفعل فإنها تعد جريمة جرح عمدى يعاقب عليها بنص المادة 241 و242من قانون العقوبات حسب مدة العلاج، ولا يُستثنى من تلك العقوبة الطبيب أو حتى الولى أو الوصى. وقد كتب المحامى الشهير أحمد شنن فى جريدة «الأخبار» مقالاً أشار فيه إلى دور وحق النيابة العامة فى تقديم مرتكب هذا الفعل للمحاكمة، بل إن بعض المحامين قد طالبوا بنص تشريعى خاص وواضح وقاطع كى لا يفلت الجانى من العقاب، وطالبوا أيضاً باعتبار جريمة ختان الإناث إحدى جرائم التلبس التى تتيح لمأمورى الضبط القضائى القبض على الفاعلين والشركاء وتقديمهم للنيابة العامة.

• متى سنقضى على ختان الإناث؟

لن نستطيع الإجابة عن هذا السؤال إلا إذا أجبنا عن سؤال أهم، ما هى مشكلتنا مع المرأة أصلاً؟ القضية لن تحسم إلا إذا حسمنا موقفنا أساساً من المرأة الذى تلخصه الأغنية الشعبية التى يقولونها للقابلة عند ولادة البنت، والتى تقول:

تستاهلى يا جابلة

تلاتين جريدة دابلة

يا مبشرة بالبُنيّة

والعوازل واجفة

حقاً إنها البنت التى تجر جسدها العورة أينما ذهبت والتى تستقبل ولادتها بتكشيرة من الأهل، وتستقبل طفولتها بذبح من الداية، وتستقبل شبابها باغتصاب من الزوج، وتستقبل شيخوختها بإهمال الأبناء والأحفاد حتى تخرج من قبر حياتها الكبيرة إلى قبر موتها الصغير.. وقديماً كان وأد البنات لحظة ولكنه الآن فى كل لحظة. ولا أجد أفضل من كلمات الصحفية العربية سالمة صالح، كختام:

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MG Cars

is a former British sports car manufacturer, which was founded in 1924, the creator of the MG brand.
is best known for its two-seat open sports cars, but MG also produced saloons and coupés. More recently, the MG marque has also been used on sportier versions of other models belonging to the parent company.

The MG marque was in continuous use (barring the years of the Second World War) for 56 years after its inception. Production of predominantly two-seater sports cars was concentrated at a factory in Abingdon, some 10 miles (16 km) south of Oxford. The British Motor Corporation (BMC) competition department was also based at the Abingdon plant and produced many winning rally and race cars. In the autumn of 1980, however, the Abingdon factory closed and MGB production ceased.

Between 1982 and 1991, the MG marque was revived on sportier versions of Austin Rover’s Metro, Maestro and Montego ranges. After an interval of barely one year, the MG marque was revived again, this time on the MG RV8 — an updated MGB Roadster with a Rover V8engine, which was produced in low volumes.
The “real” revival came in the summer of 1995, when the high volume MG F two-seater roadster was launched. This was an instant hit with buyers, and sold in volumes which had been unthinkable on affordable two-seaters since the 1970s.

The MG marque passed, along with the Rover marque to the MG Rover group in May 2000, when BMW ‘broke up’ the Rover Group. This arrangement saw the return of MG badges on sportier Rover-based cars, and a revised MG F model, known as the MG TF, launched in 2002. However, all production ceased in April 2005 when MG Rover went into administration.
The assets of MG Rover were bought by Chinese carmaker Nanjing Automobile in July 2005 who themselves were bought by SAIC in December 2007.
In 2007 production of the MG TF roadster and MG 7 large sports saloon (derived from the previous Rover 75/MG ZT model) started in China. Assembly of MG TFs for the European market, from Chinese built complete knock down (CKD) kits, was started by NAC MG UK at Longbridge in August 2008.


MG Cars got its name from Morris Garages, a dealer of Morris cars in Oxford which began producing its own customised versions to the designs of Cecil Kimber who had joined the company as its Sales Manager in 1921 and was promoted to General Manager in 1922. Kimber remained as General Manager until 1941 when he fell out with Lord Nuffield over procuring wartime work. Kimber died in 1945 in a freak railway accident.
There is some debate over when MG started. The company itself stated it to be 1924 although the first cars bore both Morris and MG badges and a reference to MG with the octagon badge appears in an Oxford newspaper from November 1923.[4] Others dispute this and believe that MG only properly began trading in 1925.
The first cars which were rebodied Morris models used coachwork from Carbodies of Coventry and were built in premises in Alfred Lane, Oxford. Demand soon caused a move to larger premises in Bainton Road in September 1925, sharing space with the Morris radiator works. Continuing expansion meant another move in 1927 to a separate factory in Edmund Road,Cowley, Oxford, near the main Morris factory and for the first time it was possible to include a production line. In 1928 the company had become large enough to warrant an identity separate from the original Morris Garages and the M.G. Car Company Limited was established in March of that year and in October for the first time a stand was taken at the London Motor Show. Space again soon ran out and a search for a permanent home led to the lease of part an old leather factory in Abingdon, Oxfordshire in 1929, gradually taking over more space until production ended there in 1980.

Nuffield Organisation
Originally owned personally by William Morris, the company was sold to Morris Motors (itself part of the Nuffield Organisation) in 1935; a change that was to have serious consequences for the company, particularly its motor-sport activities.
MG was absorbed into the British Motor Corporation, created in 1952 as a merger of the Nuffield Organisation and the Austin Motor Company. Long-time service manager John Thornley took over as General Manager, guiding the company through its best years until his retirement in 1969. Under BMC, several MG models were no more than badge-engineered versions of other marques, with the main exception being the small MG sports cars. BMC merged with Jaguar Cars in 1966 to form British Motor Holdings, which in turn merged with the Leyland Motor Corporation in 1968 to form the British Leyland Motor Corporation (BLMC).

Following partial nationalisation in 1975 BLMC became British Leyland (later just BL). Amidst a mix of economic, internal and external politics, the Abingdon factory was shut down as part of the ruthless programme of cutbacks necessary to turn BL around after the turbulent times of the 1970s. Though many plants were closed, none created such an uproar among workers, dealers, clubs and customers as this closing did. Years later, Sir Michael Edwardes expressed regret about his decision. Later forms of MGs built by BL’s Austin Rover Groupwere often badge-engineered Austins, and were made at the Longbridge plant. As of 2003, the site of the former Abingdon factory was host to McDonald’s and the Thames Valley Policewith only the former office block still standing. The headquarters of the MG Car Club (established 1930) is situated next door.
BAe then BMW
After BL became the Rover Group in 1986, ownership of the MG marque passed to British Aerospace in 1988 and then in 1994 to BMW.

MG Rover
BMW sold the business in 2000 and the MG marque passed to the MG Rover Group based in Longbridge, Birmingham. The practice of selling unique MG sports cars alongside badge-engineered models (by now Rovers) continued. The Group went into receivership in 2005 and car production was suspended on 7 April 2005.

In 2006, it was reported that an initiative called Project Kimber, led by David James, had entered talks with Nanjing to buy the MG brand in order to produce a range of sports cars based on the discontinued Smart Roadster design by DaimlerChrysler. No agreement was reached, which resulted in the AC Cars marque being adopted for the new model instead. As of 2009, the project appears to be dormant.

Nanjing and SAIC
On 22 July 2005, the Nanjing Automobile Group purchased the rights to the MG brand and the assets of the MG Rover Group for £53 million creating a new company NAC MG UK Limited. Its new Chinese owners, stated that the brand would stand for something new in China, as MG general manager Zhang Xin said: “We want Chinese consumers to know this brand as ‘Modern Gentleman’. To see that this brand represents grace and style.” In Europe it still stands for “Morris Garages”.
Nanjing restarted production of the MG TF and ZT ranges in early 2007. The TF and the ZT (renamed the MG 7) are assembled in Pukou, Jiangsu Province in China. The MG 3, a rebadged Rover Streetwise, also entered production at Pukou.

On 11 July 2006 Nanjing announced the development of a TF sports coupe A new plant was to be built in Ardmore, Oklahoma to build the car, accounting for roughly 60% of TF output worldwide. A new development centre would also be opened in the United States, located at the University of Oklahoma. According to Nanjing, MGs were to go on sale in the United States in the early summer of 2008. However, in an interview in August, 2008, NAC MG UK’s Sales and Marketing Director, Gary Hagen stated that the Oklahoma deal had fallen through. He also said that there would be no immediate return to the US market as they would first be concentrating on the UK and Ireland followed by the rest of Europe.

In 2007, NAC entered talks about a merger with Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation, supported by the Chinese government. The takeover was completed on 26 December 2007. SAIC manufactures the Roewe 750, which, like the MG 7, is derived from the Rover 75/MG ZT.
The MG range was relaunched in the United Kingdom during 2008, with an updated limited edition of the TF built at Longbridge by NAC MG UK, called the TF LE500. Production of the TF at Longbridge was suspended again in October 2009.

In November 2008, the MG brand returned to the Americas, when the SAIC Roewe 550 and Roewe 750 were rebadged as the MG 550 and MG 750 respectively by the Chilean importer, SKBergé.
In January 2009, NAC MG UK was renamed MG Motor UK Limited.
The MG 6 hatchback variant of the Roewe 550 was announced in April 2009. It is expected that this model will be assembled both in China, starting in 2010, and at Longbridge, in 2011.

Car models

The earliest model, the 1924 MG 14/28 consisted of a new sporting body on a Morris Oxford chassis.[4] This car model continued through several versions following the updates to the Morris. The first car which can be described as a new MG, rather than a modified Morris was the MG 18/80 of 1928 which had a purpose designed chassis and the first appearance of the traditional vertical MG grille. A smaller car was launched in 1929 with the first of a long line of Midgets starting with the M-Type based on a 1928 Morris Minor chassis. MG established a name for itself in the early days of the sport of international automobile racing. Beginning before and continuing after World War II, MG produced a line of cars known as the T-Series Midgets which, post-war, were exported worldwide, achieving better than expected success. These included the MG TC, MG TD, and MG TF, all of which were based on the pre-war MG TB, with various degrees of updating.

MG departed from its earlier line of Y-Type saloons and pre-war designs and released the MGA in 1955. The MGB was released in 1962 to satisfy demand for a more modern and comfortable sports car. In 1965 the fixed head coupé (FHC) followed: the MGB GT. With continual updates, mostly to comply with increasingly stringent United States emissions and safety standards, the MGB was produced until 1980. Between 1967 and 1969 a short-lived model called the MGC was released. The MGC was based on the MGB body, but with a larger (and, unfortunately, heavier) six-cylinder engine, and somewhat worse handling.

MG also began producing the MG Midget in 1961. The Midget was a re-badged and slightly restyled second-generation Austin-Healey Sprite. To the dismay of many enthusiasts, the 1974 MGB was the last model made with chrome bumpers due to new United States safety regulations; the 1974½ bore thick black rubber bumpers that some claimed ruined the marque MGB. In 1973, the MGB GT V8 was launched with the ex-Buick Rover V8 engine and was built until 1976. As with the MGB, the Midget design was frequently modified until the Abingdon factory closed in October 1980 and the last of the range was made. The badge was also applied to versions of BMC saloons including the BMC ADO16, which was also available as a Riley, but with the MG pitched as slightly more “sporty”.

The marque lived on after 1980 under BL, being used on a number of Austin saloons including the Metro, Maestro, and Montego. In New Zealand, the MG badge even appeared on the late 1980s Montego estate, called the MG 2.0 Si Wagon. There was a brief competitive history with a mid-engined, six-cylinder version of the Metro. The MG Metro finished production in 1990 on the launch of a Rover-only model. The MG Maestro and MG Montego remained on sale until 1991, when production of these models was pruned back in order for Rover to concentrate on the more viable 200 Series and 400 Series.

The Rover Group revived the two-seater with the MG RV8 in 1992. The all-new MGF went on sale in 1995, becoming the first mass-produced “real” MG sports car since the MGB ceased production in 1980.
Following the May 2000 purchase of the MG and Rover brands by the Phoenix Consortium and the forming of the new MG Rover Group, the MG range was expanded in the summer of 2001 with the introduction of three Rover-based sports models. The MG ZR was based on the Rover 25, the MG ZS on the Rover 45, and the MG ZT/ZT-T on the Rover 75.

The MG Rover Group purchased Qvale, which had taken over development of the De Tomaso Bigua. This car, renamed the Qvale Mangusta and already approved for sale in the United States, formed the basis of the MG XPower SV, an “extreme” V8-engined sports car. It was revealed in 2002 and went on sale in 2004.

In 2007, after the acquisition by Nanjing Automobile Group, the Rover 75/MG ZT was relaunched in China as the MG 7 and the Rover Streetwise as the MG 3SW. A new model, the MG 6, based in the Roewe 550, is scheduled for sale in China at the end of 2010, and in the United Kingdom and Europe in 2011.

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