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How the West Uses Islamic Extremists to Topple Enemies in the Arab countries and Iran

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Ottoman empire on the eve of World war I 1914

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Ottoman Syria map
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Ottoman Iraq map

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Sykes Picot Map 1916
98 Years ago the winners of first world war carved the Arab territories of the Ottoman empire

57 Years Ago: U.S. and Britain Approved Use of Islamic Extremists to Topple Syrian Government

Have the U.S. and Its Allies Intentionally Balkanized Syria Into Smaller Regions?
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BBC reports that – in 1957 – the British and American leaders approved the use of Islamic extremists and Moslem Brotherhood Ikhwan and false flag attacks to topple the Syrian government:

Nearly 50 years before the war in Iraq, Britain and America sought a secretive “regime change” in another Arab country… by planning the invasion of Syria and the assassination of leading figures.

Newly discovered documents show how in 1957 [former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom]
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Harold Macmillan
Harold Macmillan and President Dwight Eisenhower approved a CIA-MI6 plan to stage fake border incidents as an excuse for an invasion by Syria’s pro-western neighbours, and then to “eliminate” the most influential triumvirate in Damascus.

Although historians know that intelligence services had sought to topple the Syrian regime in the autumn of 1957, this is the first time any document has been found showing that the assassination of three leading figures was at the heart of the scheme. In the document drawn up by a top secret and high-level working group that met in Washington in September 1957, Mr Macmillan and President Eisenhower were left in no doubt about the need to assassinate the top men in Damascus.

Mr Macmillan ordered the plan withheld even from British chiefs of staff, because of their tendency “to chatter”.

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The New map drawn By the CIA and Moslem Brotherhood
Driving the call for action was the CIA’s Middle East chief Kermit Roosevelt, grandson of former president Theodore Roosevelt.

Kermit Roosevelt had a proven track record in this sort of thing. According to the New York Times, he was the leader of the CIA’s coup in Iran in 1953, which – as subsequently admitted by the CIA – used false flag terror to topple the democratically elected leader or Iran.

More importantly, Syria also had control of one of the main oil arteries of the Middle East, the pipeline which connected pro-western Iraq’s oilfields to Turkey.
By 1957, despite America’s opposition to the Suez move,
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President Dwight D. Eisenhower
President Eisenhower felt he could no longer ignore the danger of Syria becoming a centre for Moscow to spread communism throughout the Middle East. He and Mr Macmillan feared Syria would destabilise pro-western neighbours by exporting terrorism and encouraging internal dissent. More importantly, Syria also had control of one of the main oil arteries of the Middle East, the pipeline which connected pro-western Iraq’s oilfields to Turkey.

The “preferred plan”adds: “Once a political decision is reached to proceed with internal disturbances in Syria, CIA is prepared, and SIS [MI6] will attempt, to mount minor sabotage and coup de main incidents within Syria, working through contacts with individuals.

“The two services should consult, as appropriate, to avoid any overlapping or interference with each other’s activities… Incidents should not be concentrated in Damascus; the operation should not be overdone; and to the extent possible care should be taken to avoid causing key leaders of the Syrian regime to take additional personal protection measures.”

The report said that once the necessary degree of fear had been created, frontier incidents and border clashes would be staged to provide a pretext for Iraqi and Jordanian military intervention. Syria had to be “made to appear as the sponsor of plots, sabotage and violence directed against neighbouring governments,” the report says. “CIA and SIS should use their capabilities in both the psychological and action fields to augment tension.”

the project 5 Harold Macmillan and President Dwight Eisenhower

The plan called for funding of a “Free Syria Committee” [hmmm ... sounds vaguely familiar], and the arming of “political factions with paramilitary or other actionist capabilities” within Syria. The CIA and MI6 would instigate internal uprisings, for instance by the Druze [a Shia Muslim sect] in the south, help to free political prisoners held in the Mezze prison, and stir up the Muslim Brotherhood in Damascus.

Is it purely coincidence that the U.S. has heavily armed Al Qaeda Muslim extremists in Syria (and see this), and trained the jihadis who later became ISIS?
The Project 1 for the New Middle East
The soon to be New middle-east Map
Regime change in Syria was not a once-off plan. Neoconservatives also planned regime change in Syria more than 20 years ago … in 1991.

The West Has Been Arbitrarily Breaking Up Middle Eastern Countries for 100 Years

The Western powers agreed 100 years ago to arbitrarily divvy up the Middle East, without regard for historical boundries.

Neooconservatives in the U.S. and Israel have long advocated for the balkanization of Syria into smaller regions based on ethnicity and religion.

The goal was to break up the country, and to do away with the sovereignty of Syria as a separate nation. (The same goal has long applied to Iraq and other Arab states as well.)
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Syria planned partition
In 1982, a prominent Israeli journalist formerly attached to the Israeli Foreign Ministry allegedly wrote a book expressly calling for the break up of Syria:

All the Arab states should be broken down, by Israel, into small units ….

Dissolution of Syria and Iraq later on into ethnically or religiously unique areas such as in Lebanon, is Israel’s primary target on the Eastern front in the long run.
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Drawn Map of Iraq and Syria Gulf Project 2000
In any event, it is well-documented that – in 1996 – U.S. and Israeli Neocons advocated:

Weakening, containing, and even rolling back Syria ….
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maps showing the Islamic jihadi group ISIS’ carving up of Syria (and Iraq) into “the Islamic State” are interesting, indeed:

Michel Chossudovsky pointed out last month:

Destabilization and political fragmentation in Syria is also contemplated: Washington’s intent is no longer to pursue the narrow objective of “regime change” in Damascus. What is contemplated is the break up of both Iraq and Syria along sectarian-ethnic lines.

And the following map prepared by Lieutenant-Colonel Ralph Peters (retired colonel of the U.S. National War Academy) in the Armed Forces Journal in June 2006 shows a balkanized Syria and Middle East:

In summary, we don’t have conclusive proof that the U.S., Israeli or their allies have intentionally broken up Syria.But in light of such claims – and the 57-year old American-British plan to stir up Muslim Brotherhood and other religious extremists in Syria – Well

by Washingtons Blog and other sources

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Endive 1 Red California Endive
Endive is a leaf vegetable belonging to the daisy family. Endive can be cooked or used raw in salads.

Endive belongs to the chicory genus, which includes several similar bitter leafed vegetables. Species include endive Common chicory includes chicory types such as radicchio, puntarelle, and Belgian endive.

There is considerable confusion between Cichorium endivia and Cichorium intybus. Because of the name, endive is wrongly associated with Belgian endive which is a cultivated variety of common chicory.
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Endive is rich in many vitamins and minerals, especially in folate and vitamins A and K, and is high in fiber. Endive is also a common name for some types of chicory (Cichorium intybus).

There are two main varieties of cultivated endive:

Curly endive, or frisée (var crispum). This type has narrow, green, curly outer leaves. It is sometimes called chicory in the United States and is called chicorée frisée in French. Further confusion results from the fact that frisée also refers to a technique in which greens are lightly wilted with oil.
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Escarole, or broad-leaved, endive (var latifolia) has broad, pale green leaves and is less bitter than the other varieties. Varieties or names include broad-leaved endive, Bavarian endive, Batavian endive, grumolo, scarola, and scarole. It is eaten like other greens, sauteed, chopped into soups and stews, or as part of a green salad.

Endive Cichorium intybus, Compositeae
A plant created in the 19th century by a Belgian botanist. There are two principal varieties of endives.
White endive has crunchy leaves that are a creamy white color with a slightly bitter taste.
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Red endive is a cross between the white endive and red radicchio. Its flavor is milder than the white endive. It cannot be cooked, as it loses its color and particular flavor.


Choose: firm endive with compact, creamy white leaves, five times longer than wide, with only two outer leaves visible.

Avoid: soft endive with green leaves or whose ends have browned.


Endive is best when very fresh.

In the fridge: 5-7 days, in a loosely closed or perforated plastic bag or wrapped loosely in a damp cloth.
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Dogs and Parrots Annoying Cats with Their Friendship

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Will Smith

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Willard Carroll “Will” Smith, Jr. (born September 25, 1968) is an American actor, producer, and rapper. He has enjoyed success in television, film, and music. In April 2007, Newsweek called him the most powerful actor in Hollywood. Smith has been nominated for 4 Golden Globe Awards, 2 Academy Awards, and has won 4Grammy Awards.

In the late 1980s, Smith achieved modest fame as a rapper under the name The Fresh Prince. In 1990, his popularity increased dramatically when he starred in the popular television series The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air. The show ran for nearly 6 years (1990–96) on NBC and has been syndicated consistently on various networks since then. In the mid-1990s, Smith moved from television to film, and ultimately starred in numerous blockbuster films. He is the only actor to have 8 consecutive films gross over $100 million in the domestic box office, and 11 consecutive films gross over $150 million internationally and the only one to have 8 consecutive films in which he starred open at #1 spot in the domestic box office tally.
Will Smith is ranked as the most bankable star worldwide by Forbes despite the box-office and critical disappointment of his 2013 film, After Earth, co-starring Jaden Smith. 16 of the 20 fiction films he has acted in have accumulated worldwide gross earnings of over $100 million each, and 5 took in over $500 million each in global box office receipts. As of 2014, his films have grossed $6.6 billion in global box office. He received Best Actor Oscar nominations for Ali and The Pursuit of Happyness.
Family and early life
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Will with Parents as a baby
Smith was born and raised in West Philadelphia to refrigeration engineer Willard Carroll Smith, Sr. and Philadelphia school board administrator Caroline Bright. He also lived in Germantown in Northwest Philadelphia. He was raised Baptist. His parents separated when he was thirteen, but did not actually divorce until around 2000.
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Though widely reported, it is untrue that Smith turned down a scholarship to attend the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); he never applied to the school, although he was admitted to a “pre-engineering program” there. According to Smith, “My mother, who worked for the School Board of Philadelphia, had a friend who was the admissions officer at MIT.

I had pretty high SAT scores and they needed black kids, so I probably could have gotten in. But I had no intention of going to college.”
Recording and acting career

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Smith at the Emmy Awards in 1993
Early work
Smith started as the MC of the hip-hop duo DJ Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince, with his childhood friend Jeffrey “DJ Jazzy Jeff” Townes as turntablist and producer, as well as Ready Rock C (Clarence Holmes) as the human beat box. The trio was known for performing humorous, radio-friendly songs, most notably “Parents Just Don’t Understand” and “Summertime”. They gained critical acclaim and won the first Grammy awarded in the Rap category (1988).

Smith spent money freely around 1988 and 1989 and underpaid his income taxes. The Internal Revenue Service eventually assessed a $2.8 million tax debt against Smith, took many of his possessions, and garnished his income. Smith was nearly bankrupt in 1990, when the NBC television network signed him to a contract and built a sitcom,The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, around him.
The show was successful and began his acting career. Smith set for himself the goal of becoming “the biggest movie star in the world,” studying box office successes’ common characteristics.

Feature films
Smith’s first major roles were in the drama Six Degrees of Separation (1993) and the action film Bad Boys (1995) in which he starred opposite of Martin Lawrence.
In 1996, Smith starred as part of an ensemble cast in Roland Emmerich’s Independence Day. The film was a massive blockbuster, becoming the second highest grossing film in history at the time and establishing Smith as a prime box office draw. He later struck gold again in the summer of 1997 alongside Tommy Lee Jones in the summer hit Men in Black playing Agent J. In 1998, Smith starred with Gene Hackman in Enemy of the State.
He turned down the role of Neo in The Matrix in favor of Wild Wild West (1999). Despite the disappointment of Wild Wild West, Smith has said that he harbors no regrets about his decision, asserting that Keanu Reeves’s performance as Neo was superior to what Smith himself would have achieved, although in interviews subsequent to the release of Wild Wild West he stated that he “made a mistake on Wild Wild West. That could have been better.”

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Smith in May 2012
In 2005, Smith was entered into the Guinness Book of World Records for attending three premieres in a 24-hour time span.
He has planned to star in a feature film remake of the television series It Takes a Thief.
On December 10, 2007, Smith was honored at Grauman’s Chinese Theatre on Hollywood Boulevard. Smith left an imprint of his hands and feet outside the world renowned theater in front of many fans. Later that month, Smith starred in the film I Am Legend, released December 14, 2007. Despite marginally positive reviews, its opening was the largest ever for a film released in the United States during December.

Smith himself has said that he considers the film to be “aggressively unique”. A reviewer said that the film’s commercial success “cemented [Smith's] standing as the number one box office draw in Hollywood.” On December 1, 2008, TV Guide reported that Smith has been selected as one of America’s top ten most fascinating people of 2008 for a Barbara Walters ABC special that aired on December 4, 2008.

Smith was reported in 2008 to be developing a film entitled The Last Pharaoh, in which he will star as Taharqa.
Men in Black III opened on May 25, 2012 with Smith again reprising his role as Agent J. This was his first major starring role in four years.
On August 19, 2011, it was announced that Smith had returned to the studio with producer La Mar Edwards to work on his fifth studio album. Edwards has worked with artists such as T.I., Chris Brown, and Game. Smith’s most recent studio album, Lost and Found, was released in 2005.
Smith and his son Jaden played father and son in two productions: the 2006 biographical drama The Pursuit of Happyness, and the science fiction film After Earth, which was released on May 31, 2013.

Smith will star opposite Margot Robbie, in the upcoming romance comedy-drama Focus, as Nicky Spurgeon, a veteran con artist who takes a young, attractive woman under his wing, but things get complicated when they become romantically involved. Focus will be released on February 27, 2015.
Smith was set to star in the sci-fi thriller Brilliance, an adaptation of Marcus Sakey’s novel of the same name scripted by Jurassic Park writer David Koepp. But the actor left the project.
According to Variety, Smith is set to star in a football drama based on the GQ article “Game Brain” by Jeanne Marie Laskas. Smith would play Dr. Bennett Omalu of the Brain Injury Research Institute, a forensic neuropathologist who became the first person to discover Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in a football player’s brain. CTE is a degenerative disease caused by severe trauma to the head that can be discovered only after death. Smith’s involvement is mostly due to his last-minute exit from the sci-fi thriller-drama Brilliance. “Game Brain” will be filmed in Pittsburgh, according to the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. “Game Brain” will receive $14.4 million in film tax credits from Pennsylvania and is expected to start production soon, the Tribune-Review said.
Personal life

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Nobel Peace Prize Concert December 11, 2009, in Oslo, Norway: Smith with wife Jada and children Jaden and Willow
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Smith married Sheree Zampino in 1992.
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Will with Trey celebrating his son’s 21 birthday
They had one son, Willard Carroll “Trey” Smith III on November 11, 1992, and divorced in 1995. Trey appeared in his father’s music video for the 1998 single “Just the Two of Us”.
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Smith married actress Jada Koren Pinkett in 1997.

Together they have two children:
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Jaden Christopher Syre Smith (born 1998), his co-star in The Pursuit of Happyness, and Willow Camille Reign Smith (born 2000), who appeared as his daughter in I Am Legend.

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Smith and his brother Harry own Treyball Development Inc., a Beverly Hills-based company named after Trey.
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With Family

Smith and his family reside in Los Angeles, California.

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Smith was consistently listed in Fortune Magazine’s “Richest 40″ list of the forty wealthiest Americans under the age of 40. He donated $4,600 to the 2008 presidential campaign of Democrat Barack Obama. On December 11, 2009, Smith and his wife hosted the Nobel Peace Prize Concert in Oslo, Norway – to celebrate Obama’s winning of the prize.

Religious beliefs
Will Smith was raised in a Baptist household, and while he remained a Christian for years and never identified as a Scientologist, he no longer identifies as religious. Though he is not a Scientologist and has denied rumors claiming him as a member of the Church of Scientology, he has spoken favorably about it, saying “I just think a lot of the ideas in Scientology are brilliant and revolutionary and non-religious.”
Smith gave $1.3 million to charities in 2007, of which $450,000 went to two Christian ministries, and $122,500 went to three Scientology organizations; the remaining beneficiaries included “a Los Angeles mosque, other Christian-based schools and churches, and [.....] the Yitzhak Rabin Memorial Center in Israel.” Smith and his wife have also founded a private elementary school in Calabasas, California, the New Village Leadership Academy. Federal tax filing showed that Will Smith donated $1.2 million to the school in 2010.

Political views
As of 2012, Smith supports legalizing same-sex marriage.
Main articles: Will Smith discography and DJ Jazzy Jeff & The Fresh Prince discography
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Will with DJ Jazzy Jeff
With DJ Jazzy Jeff
• Rock the House (1987)
• He’s the DJ, I’m the Rapper (1988)
• And in This Corner… (1989)
• Homebase (1991)
• Code Red (1993)
• Big Willie Style (1997)
• Willennium (1999)
• Born to Reign (2002)

• Lost and Found (2005)

Year Show
1990 Saturday Morning Videos
1990 The Earth Day Special

1990 ABC Afterschool Special

1990 Rockin’ Through the Decades
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1990–1996 The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air
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1992 Blossom

1996 Martin

1997 Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales for Every Child

2003–2004 All of Us

2004 American Chopper

2009 Un-broke: What You Need To Know About Money
2012 2012 Kids’ Choice Awards

Year Title
1992 Where the Day Takes You

1993 Made in America

1993 Six Degrees of Separation

1995 Bad Boys

1996 Independence Day

1997 Men in Black

1998 Enemy of the State

1999 Wild Wild West

2000 The Legend of Bagger Vance

2001 Ali

2002 Men in Black II

2003 Bad Boys II

2004 Jersey Girl

2004 I, Robot

2004 Shark Tale

2005 Hitch

2006 The Pursuit of Happiness

2007 I Am Legend

2008 Hancock

2008 Seven Pounds

2012 Men in Black 3
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Will Smith with Son Jaden In after Earth

2013 After Earth

2013 Anchorman 2: The Legend Continues

2014 Winter’s Tale

2015 Focus

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Ukrainian Talent and Vodka

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Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds allied to the procellariids, storm petrels and diving petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses). They range widely in the Southern Ocean and the North Pacific. They are absent from the North Atlantic, although fossil remains show they once occurred there and occasional vagrants are found. Albatrosses are among the largest of flying birds, and the great albatrosses (genus Diomedea) have the largest wingspans of any extant birds, reaching up to 12 feet (3.7 m). The albatrosses are usually regarded as falling into four genera, but there is disagreement over the number of species.
Albatrosses are highly efficient in the air, using dynamic soaring and slope soaring to cover great distances with little exertion. They feed on squid, fish and krill by either scavenging, surface seizing or diving. Albatrosses are colonial, nesting for the most part on remote oceanic islands, often with several species nesting together. Pair bonds between males and females form over several years, with the use of “ritualised dances”, and will last for the life of the pair. A breeding season can take over a year from laying to fledging, with a single egg laid in each breeding attempt. A Laysan albatross, named Wisdom on Midway Island is recognized as the oldest wild bird in the world; she was first banded in 1956 by Chandler Robbins.
Albat 2ross_Density_Map
Global range density (in red)
Of the 21 species of albatrosses recognised by the IUCN, 19 have been threatened with extinction. Numbers of albatrosses have declined in the past due to harvesting for feathers, but today the albatrosses are threatened by introduced species, such as rats and feral cats that attack eggs, chicks and nesting adults; by pollution; by a serious decline in fish stocks in many regions largely due to overfishing; and by longline fishing. Longline fisheries pose the greatest threat, as feeding birds are attracted to the bait, become hooked on the lines, and drown. Identified stakeholders such as governments, conservation organisations and people in the fishing industry are all working toward reducing this bycatch.
Morphology and flight

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Portrait of a southern royal albatross (Diomedea epomophora). Note the large, hooked beak and nasal tubes.
The albatrosses are a group of large to very large birds; they are the largest of the procellariiformes. The bill is large, strong and sharp-edged, the upper mandible terminating in a large hook. This bill is composed of several horny plates, and along the sides are the two “tubes”, long nostrils that give the order its former name. The tubes of all albatrosses are along the sides of the bill, unlike the rest of the Procellariiformes where the tubes run along the top of the bill. These tubes allow the albatrosses to measure the exact airspeed in flight; the nostrils are analogous to the pitot tubes in modern aircraft. The albatross needs accurate airspeed measurement in order to perform dynamic soaring. The main food-locating sense is eyesight, although, like other Procellariiformes, they use their olfactory ability while foraging to locate potential food sources. The feet have no hind toe and the three anterior toes are completely webbed. The legs are strong for Procellariiformes, in fact, almost uniquely amongst the order in that they and the giant petrels are able to walk well on land.

Albatrosses, along with all Procellariiformes, have a need to excrete the salts they ingest in drinking sea water and eating marine invertebrates. All birds have an enlarged nasal gland at the base of the bill, above their eyes. This gland is inactive in species that don’t require it, but in the Procellariiformes it acts as a salt gland. Scientists are uncertain as to its exact processes, but do know in general terms that it removes salt by secreting a 5% saline solution that drips out of their nose or is forcibly ejected in some birds.

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Taking off is one of the main times albatrosses use flapping to fly, and is the most energetically demanding part of a journey.
The adult plumage of most of the albatrosses is usually some variation of dark upper-wing and back, white undersides, often compared to that of a gull. Of these, the species range from the southern royal albatross which is almost completely white except for the ends and trailing edges of the wings in fully mature males, to the Amsterdam albatross which has an almost juvenile-like breeding plumage with a great deal of brown, particularly a strong brown band around the chest. Several species of mollymawks and North Pacific albatrosses have face markings like eye patches or have grey or yellow on the head and nape. Three albatross species, the black-footed albatross and the two sooty albatrosses, vary completely from the usual patterns and are almost entirely dark brown (or dark grey in places in the case of the light-mantled albatross). Albatrosses take several years to get their full adult breeding plumage.
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The wingspans of the largest great albatrosses (genus Diomedea) are the largest of any bird, exceeding 340 cm (11.2 ft), although the other species’ wingspans are considerably smaller (1.75 m (5.7 ft)).[16] The wings are stiff and cambered, with thickened streamlined leading edges. Albatrosses travel huge distances with two techniques used by many long-winged seabirds, dynamic soaring and slope soaring. Dynamic soaring involves repeatedly rising into wind and descending downwind thus gaining energyfrom the vertical wind gradient.

The bird descends with the wind accelerating, then turns head to the slower wind over the water, climbing up to just before stall speed, then turn downwind again descending to accelerate with the higher altitude stronger wind and gravity. And so on. This manoeuvre allows the bird to cover almost 1000 km a day, without flapping its wings once. The only effortless movement is left and right turn in every such loop. Slope soaring uses the rising air on the windward side of large waves. Albatross have high glide ratios, around 22:1 to 23:1, meaning that for every metre they drop, they can travel forward 22 metres. They are aided in soaring by a shoulder-lock, a sheet of tendon that locks the wing when fully extended, allowing the wing to be kept outstretched without any muscle expenditure, a morphological adaptation they share with the giant petrels.

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Albatrosses range over huge areas of ocean and regularly circle the globe.
Albatrosses combine these soaring techniques with the use of predictable weather systems; albatrosses in the Southern Hemisphere flying north from their colonies will take aclockwise route, and those flying south will fly counterclockwise. Albatrosses are so well adapted to this lifestyle that their heart rates while flying are close to their basal heart rate when resting. This efficiency is such that the most energetically demanding aspect of a foraging trip is not the distance covered, but the landings, take-offs and hunting they undertake having found a food source. A common assumption is that albatrosses must be able to sleep in flight, although no direct evidence has ever been obtained.
This efficient long-distance travelling underlies the albatross’s success as a long-distance forager, covering great distances and expending little energy looking for patchily distributed food sources. Their adaptation to gliding flight makes them dependent on wind and waves, however, as their long wings are ill-suited to powered flight and most species lack the muscles and energy to undertake sustained flapping flight. Albatrosses in calm seas are forced to rest on the ocean’s surface until the wind picks up again. The North Pacific albatrosses can use a flight style known as flap-gliding, where the bird progresses by bursts of flapping followed by gliding.[20] When taking off, albatrosses need to take a run up to allow enough air to move under the wing to provide lift.
The dynamic soaring of albatrosses is inspiring to airplane designers; German aerospace engineer Johannes Traugott and colleagues have charted the albatross’s nuanced flight pattern and are looking for ways to apply this to aircraft, especially in the area of drones and unmanned aircraft.
Distribution and range at sea

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Three birds on Midway Atoll, 1958
Most albatrosses range in the Southern Hemisphere from Antarctica to Australia, South Africa and South America. The exceptions to this are the four North Pacific albatrosses, of which three occur exclusively in the North Pacific, from Hawaii to Japan, California and Alaska; and one, the waved albatross, breeds in the Galapagos Islands and feeds off the coast of South America. The need for wind to enable gliding is the reason albatrosses are for the most part confined to higher latitudes; being unsuited to sustained flapping flight makes crossing the doldrums extremely difficult. The exception, the waved albatross, is able to live in the equatorial waters around the Galapagos Islands because of the cool waters of the Humboldt Current and the resulting winds.

It is not known for certain why the albatrosses became extinct in the North Atlantic, although rising sea levels due to an interglacial warming period are thought to have submerged the site of a short-tailed albatross colony that has been excavated in Bermuda. Some southern species have occasionally turned up as vagrants in the North Atlantic and can become exiled, remaining there for decades. One of these exiles, a black-browed albatross, returned to gannet colonies in Scotland for many years in an attempt to breed.
The use of satellite tracking is teaching scientists a great deal about the way albatrosses forage across the ocean to find food. They undertake no annual migration, but disperse widely after breeding, in the case of Southern Hemisphere species, often undertaking circumpolar trips. There is also evidence that there is separation of the ranges of different species at sea. A comparison of the foraging niches of two related species that breed on Campbell Island, the Campbell albatross and the grey-headed albatross, showed the Campbell albatross primarily fed over the Campbell Plateau whereas the grey-headed albatross fed in morepelagic, oceanic waters. Wandering albatrosses also react strongly to bathymetry, feeding only in waters deeper than 1000 m (3281 ft); so rigidly did the satellite plots match this contour that one scientist remarked, “It almost appears as if the birds notice and obey a ‘No Entry’ sign where the water shallows to less than 1000 m”. There is also evidence of different ranges for the two sexes of the same species; a study of Tristan albatrosses breeding on Gough Island showed that males foraged to the west of Gough and females to the east.

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Light-mantled albatrosses regularly dive to feed, and can dive to below 12 m (39 ft).
The albatross diet is predominantly cephalopods, fish, crustaceans, and offal, although they will also scavenge carrion and feed on other zooplankton. It should be noted that for most species a comprehensive understanding of diet is only known for the breeding season, when the albatrosses regularly return to land and study is possible. The importance of each of these food sources varies from species to species, and even from population to population; some concentrate on squid alone, others take more krill or fish. Of the two albatross species found in Hawaii, one, the black-footed albatross, takes mostly fish while the Laysan feeds on squid.
The use of data loggers at sea that record ingestion of water against time (providing a likely time of feeding) suggest that albatrosses predominantly feed during the day. Analysis of the squid beaks regurgitated by albatrosses has shown that many of the squid eaten are too large to have been caught alive, and include mid-water species likely to be beyond the reach of albatross, suggesting that, for some species (like the wandering albatross), scavenged squid may be an important part of the diet. The source of these dead squid is a matter of debate; some certainly comes from squid fisheries, but in nature it primarily comes from the die-off that occurs after squid spawning and the vomit of squid-eating whales (sperm whales, pilot whales and southern bottlenose whales). The diet of other species, like the black-browed albatross or the grey-headed albatross, is rich with smaller species of squid that tend to sink after death, and scavenging is not assumed to play a large role in their diet. Also the waved albatross has been observed practising kleptoparasitism, harassing boobies to steal their food, making it the only member of its order to do so regularly.

Until recently it was thought that albatross were predominantly surface feeders, swimming at the surface and snapping up squid and fish pushed to the surface by currents, predators, or death. The deployment of capillary depth recorders, which record the maximum dive depth undertaken by a bird (between attaching it to a bird and recovering it when it returns to land), has shown that while some species, like the wandering albatross, do not dive deeper than a metre, some species, like the light-mantled albatross, have a mean diving depth of almost 5 m and can dive as deep as 12.5 m. In addition to surface feeding and diving, they have also been observed plunge diving from the air to snatch prey.
Breeding and dancing

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Sky-pointing is one of the stereotyped actions of Laysan albatross breeding dances.
Albatrosses are colonial, usually nesting on isolated islands; where colonies are on larger landmasses, they are found on exposed headlands with good approaches from the sea in several directions, like the colony on the Otago Peninsula in Dunedin, New Zealand. Many Buller’s albatrosses and black-footed albatrosses nest under trees in open forest. Colonies vary from the very dense aggregations favoured by the mollymawks (black-browed albatross colonies on the Falkland Islands have densities of 70 nests per 100 m2) to the much looser groups and widely spaced individual nests favoured by the sooty and great albatrosses. All albatross colonies are on islands that historically were free of land mammals. Albatrosses are highly philopatric, meaning they will usually return to their natal colony to breed. This tendency to return to their point of origin to breed is so strong that a study ofLaysan albatross showed that the average distance between hatching site and the site where a bird established its own territory was 22 m (72 ft).
Albatrosses live much longer than other birds; they delay breeding for longer and invest more effort into fewer young. Most species survive upwards of 50 years, the oldest recorded being a northern royal albatross that was ringed as an adult and survived for another 51 years, giving it an estimated age of 61. Given that most albatross ringing projects are considerably younger than that, it is thought likely that other species will prove to live that long and even longer.
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Albatrosses reach sexual maturity slowly, after about five years, but even once they have reached maturity, they will not begin to breed for another couple of years (even up to 10 years for some species). Young non-breeders will attend a colony prior to beginning to breed, spending many years practising the elaborate breeding rituals and “dances” that the family is famous for. Birds arriving back at the colony for the first time already have the stereotyped behaviours that compose albatross language, but can neither “read” that behaviour as exhibited by other birds nor respond appropriately. After a period of trial and error learning, the young birds learn the syntax and perfect the dances. This language is mastered more rapidly if the younger birds are around older birds.
The repertoire of behaviour involves synchronised performances of various actions such as preening, pointing, calling, bill clacking, staring, and combinations of such behaviours (like the sky-call). When a bird first returns to the colony it will dance with many partners, but after a number of years the number of birds an individual will interact with drops, until one partner is chosen and a pair is formed. They then continue to perfect an individual language that will eventually be unique to that one pair. Having established a pair bond that will last for life, however, most of that dance will never be used again.
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An albatross chick at Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, Midway Atoll.
Albatrosses are held to undertake these elaborate and painstaking rituals to ensure that the appropriate partner has been chosen and to perfect partner recognition, as egg laying and chick rearing is a huge investment. Even species that can complete an egg-laying cycle in under a year seldom lay eggs in consecutive years. The great albatrosses (like the wandering albatross) take over a year to raise a chick from laying to fledging. Albatrosses lay a single subelliptical egg, white with reddish brown spots, in a breeding season; if the egg is lost to predators or accidentally broken, then no further breeding attempts are made that year. The larger eggs weigh from 200–510 g (7.1–18.0 oz).

The “divorce” of a pair is a rare occurrence, due to the diminished life-time reproductive success it causes, and usually only happens after several years of breeding failure.
All the southern albatrosses create large nests for their egg, utilizing grass, shrubs, soil, peat, and even penguin feathers, whereas the three species in the North Pacific make more rudimentary nests. The waved albatross, on the other hand, makes no nest and will even move its egg around the pair’s territory, as much as 50 m (160 ft), sometimes causing it to lose the egg. In all albatross species, both parents incubate the egg in stints that last between one day and three weeks. Incubation lasts around 70 to 80 days (longer for the larger albatrosses), the longest incubation period of any bird. It can be an energetically demanding process, with the adult losing as much as 83 g (2.9 oz) of body weight a day.

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Albatrosses brood young chicks until they are large enough to thermoregulate.
After hatching, the chick, which is semi-altricial, is brooded and guarded for three weeks until it is large enough to defend and thermoregulate itself. During this period the parents feed the chick small meals when they relieve each other from duty. After the brooding period is over, the chick is fed in regular intervals by both parents. The parents adopt alternative patterns of short and long foraging trips, providing meals that weigh around 12% of their body weight (around 600 g (21 oz)). The meals are composed of both fresh squid, fish and krill, as well as stomach oil, an energy-rich food that is lighter to carry than undigested prey items. This oil is created in a stomach organ known as aproventriculus from digested prey items by most tubenoses, and gives them their distinctive musty smell.
Albatross chicks take a long time to fledge. In the case of the great albatrosses, it can take up to 280 days; even for the smaller albatrosses, it takes anywhere between 140 and 170 days. Like many seabirds, albatross chicks will gain enough weight to be heavier than their parents, and prior to fledging they use these reserves to build up body condition (particularly growing all their flight feathers), usually fledging at the same weight as their parents. Between 15% and 65% of those fledged survive to breed. Albatross chicks fledge on their own and receive no further help from their parents, who return to the nest after fledging, unaware their chick has left. Studies of juveniles dispersing at sea have suggested an innate migration behaviour, a genetically coded navigation route, which helps young birds when they are first out at sea.
Albatrosses and humans
The name albatross is derived from the Arabic al-câdous or al-ġaţţās (a pelican; literally, “the diver”), which travelled to English via the Portuguese form alcatraz (“gannet”), which is also the origin of the name of the former prison, Alcatraz. The OED notes that the word alcatraz was originally applied to the frigatebird; the modification to albatross was perhaps influenced by Latin albus, meaning “white”, in contrast to frigatebirds which are black. In modern Portuguese, the word used for the bird, albatroz, is in turn derived from English albatross.
They were once commonly known as goonie birds or gooney birds, particularly those of the North Pacific. In the Southern Hemisphere, the name mollymawk is still well established in some areas, which is a corrupted form of malle-mugge, an old Dutch name for the northern fulmar. The name Diomedea, assigned to the albatrosses by Linnaeus, references the mythical metamorphosis of the companions of the Greek warrior Diomedes into birds. Finally, the name for the order, Procellariiformes, comes from the Latin word procella meaning “a violent wind” or “a storm”.
In culture

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1837 woodcut from the journal O Panorama
Albatrosses have been described as “the most legendary of all birds”. An albatross is a central emblem in The Rime of the Ancient Mariner by Samuel Taylor Coleridge; a captive albatross is also a metaphor for the poète maudit in a poem of Charles Baudelaire. It is from the Coleridge poem that the usage of albatross as a metaphor is derived; someone with a burden or obstacle is said to have “an albatross around their neck”, the punishment given in the poem to the mariner who killed the albatross. In part due to the poem, there is a widespread myth that (all) sailors believe it disastrous to shoot or harm an albatross; in truth, sailors regularly killed and ate them, e.g., as reported by James Cook in 1772. On the other hand, it has been reported that sailors caught the birds, but supposedly let them free again; the possible reason is that albatrosses were often regarded as the souls of lost sailors, so that killing them was supposedly viewed as bringing bad luck. The head of an albatross being caught with a hook is used as the emblem of the Cape Horners, i.e. sailors who have rounded Cape Horn on freighters under sail; captains of such ships even received themselves the title “albatrosses” in the Cape Horners’ organization.
In golf, shooting three under par on a single hole has recently been termed scoring an “albatross”, as a continuation on the birdie and eagle theme.
The Maori used the wing bones of the albatross to carve flutes.
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Albatrosses are popular birds for birdwatchers and their colonies are popular destinations for ecotourists. Regular birdwatching trips are taken out of many coastal towns and cities, like Monterey, Kaikoura,Wollongong, Sydney, Port Fairy, Hobart and Cape Town, to see pelagic seabirds. Albatrosses are easily attracted to these sightseeing boats by the deployment of fish oil and burley into the sea. Visits to colonies can be very popular; the northern royal albatross colony at Taiaroa Head in New Zealand attracts 40,000 visitors a year, and more isolated colonies are regular attractions on cruises to Subantarctic islands.
Threats and conservation

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This black-browed albatross has been hooked on a long-line.
In spite of often being accorded legendary status, albatrosses have not escaped either indirect or direct pressure from humans. Early encounters with albatrosses byPolynesians and Aleut Indians resulted in hunting and in some cases extirpation from some islands (such as Easter Island). As Europeans began sailing the world, they too began to hunt albatross, “fishing” for them from boats to serve at the table or blasting them for sport. This sport reached its peak on emigration lines bound for Australia, and only died down when ships became too fast to fish from, and regulations stopped the discharge of weapons for safety reasons. In the 19th century, albatross colonies, particularly those in the North Pacific, were harvested for the feather trade, leading to the near extinction of the short-tailed albatross.

Of the 21 albatross species recognised by IUCN on their Red List, 19 are threatened, and the other two are “near threatened”. Three species (as recognised by the IUCN) are considered critically endangered: the Amsterdam albatross, Tristan albatross and the waved albatross. One of the main threats is commercial longline fishing, as the albatrosses and other seabirds—which will readily feed on offal—are attracted to the set bait, become hooked on the lines and drown. An estimated 100,000 albatross per year are killed in this fashion. Unregulated pirate fisheries exacerbate the problem.
On Midway Atoll, collisions between Laysan albatross and aircraft have resulted in human and bird deaths as well as severe disruptions in military flight operations. Studies were made in the late 1950s and early 1960s that examined the results of control methods such as the killing of birds, the levelling and clearing of land to eliminate updrafts and the destruction of annual nesting sites. Tall structures such as traffic control and radio towers killed 3000 birds in flight collisions during 1964–1965 before the towers were taken down. Closure of Naval Air Facility Midway in 1993 eliminated the problem of collisions with military aircraft. Recent reductions in human activity on the island have helped reduce bird deaths, though lead paint pollution near military buildings continues to poison birds by ingestion. Albatross plumes were popular in the early 20th century. In 1909 alone over 300,000 albatrosses were killed on Midway Island and Laysan Island for their plumes.
Another threat to albatrosses is introduced species, such as rats or feral cats, which directly attack the albatross or its chicks and eggs. Albatrosses have evolved to breed on islands where land mammals are absent and have not developed defences against them. Even species as small as mice can be detrimental; on Gough Island the chicks of Tristan albatrosses are attacked and eaten alive by introduced house mice. Introduced species can have other indirect effects: cattle overgrazed essential cover on Amsterdam Island threatening the Amsterdam albatross; on other islands introduced plants reduce potential nesting habitat.

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The remains of this Laysan albatross chick show the plastic ingested before death, including a bottle cap and lighter.
Ingestion of plastic flotsam is another problem, one faced by many seabirds. The amount of plastic in the seas has increased dramatically since the first record in the 1960s, coming from waste discarded by ships, offshore dumping, litter on beaches and waste washed to sea by rivers. It is impossible to digest and takes up space in the stomach orgizzard that should be used for food, or can cause an obstruction that starves the bird directly. Studies of birds in the North Pacific have shown that ingestion of plastics results in declining body weight and body condition.[49] This plastic is sometimes regurgitated and fed to chicks; a study of Laysan albatross chicks on Midway Atoll showed large amounts of ingested plastic in naturally dead chicks compared to healthy chicks killed in accidents. While not the direct cause of death, this plastic causes physiological stress and causes the chick to feel full during feedings, reducing its food intake and the chances of survival.

Scientists and conservationists (most importantly BirdLife International and their partners, who run the Save the Albatross campaign) are working with governments andfishermen to find solutions to the threats albatrosses face. Techniques such as setting long-line bait at night, dyeing the bait blue, setting the bait underwater, increasing the amount of weight on lines and using bird scarers can all reduce the seabird bycatch.[51] For example, a collaborative study between scientists and fishermen in New Zealandsuccessfully tested an underwater setting device for longliners which set the lines below the reach of vulnerable albatross species. The use of some of these techniques in the Patagonian toothfish fishery in the Falkland Islands is thought to have reduced the number of black-browed albatross taken by the fleet in the last 10 years. Conservationists have also worked on the field of island restoration, removing introduced species that threaten native wildlife, which protects albatrosses from introduced predators.
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One important step towards protecting albatrosses and other seabirds is the 2001 treaty, the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels, which came into force in 2004 and has been ratified by thirteen countries, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, France, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, South Africa, Spain, the United Kingdom and Uruguay. The treaty requires these countries to take specific actions to reduce bycatch, pollution and to remove introduced species from nesting islands.

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Douglas Charles

National nude day Its National Nude Day so here are some female celebrities being naked
As model Hilary Rhoda was so kind to point out, today is National Nude Day,

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Ashley Benson naked pictures hit the Web, but are they real?

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How about a little more of Emily Ratajkowski posing half naked?
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Emily Ratajkowski naked GQ Its National Nude Day so here are 10* female celebrities being nakedMichael Thompson/GQ

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Emily Didonato

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Wild child supermodel Cara Delevingne got kinda naked on Instagram
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Cara Delevingne nude Its National Nude Day so here are some female celebrities being nakedCara Delevingne, Instagram

Whole Day Nude from Paradise Studios Hollywood on Vimeo.

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Alexandria Daddario got kinda naked again for a hot new photo shoot
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alexandria daddario naked Its National Nude Day so here are 10* female celebrities being nakedAlexandra Daddario image by Helga Esteb/Shutterstock
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Jessica Alba Got Her Pants From The Wrong Drawer This Morning

Blind Date Uncensored nakedness by vegas_999
Blind dates on National Nude day
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Hot model Sara Malakul Lane got naked with some ramen noodles

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Sophie Marceau
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Rihanna was pretty much naked at the CFDA Fashion Awards last night

Hmmm, by the looks of this, it appears today isn’t the only time female celebrities consider it to be National Nude Day. That’s a lot of naked women for a just a month . God bless ‘em all.

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David Chalmers: How do you explain consciousness?

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David Chalmers is a philosopher at the Australian National University and New York University. He works in philosophy of mind and in related areas of philosophy and cognitive science. While he’s especially known for his theories on consciousness, he’s also interested (and has extensively published) in all sorts of other issues in the foundations of cognitive science, the philosophy of language, metaphysics and epistemology.

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In his work, David Chalmers explores the “hard problem of consciousness” — the quest to explain our subjective experience.
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Chalmers placed the “hard problem” of consciousness firmly on the philosophical map. He famously challenges materialist conceptions of mind, arguing for an “explanatory gap” between our brains’ physical properties and our minds’ qualia. Elsewhere he has championed the notion of the “extended mind,” which argues that the mind is not confined to skin or skull, but plausibly may extend beyond them.

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